Fausto Gomez, OP.

I invite you to reflect with me on the main objective of the celebration of Jubilee 800: continuing or ongoing or permanent formation.

I shall develop the topic by touching on three points: first, on the objective of Jubilee 800; second, on the main protagonist of permanent formation, and third, on an easy way to achieve continuing renewal and conversion.

1. MAIN OBJECTIVE: ONGOING RENEWAL

Like the Church, the Order of Preachers is called constantly to renewal: Semper reformanda! Jubilees in the Church, in the Order, in a Province are deeply concerned with conversion, renewal, metanoia, that is change of ideas and of heart. The objective of the Jubilee is the renewal of the apostolic life of the Order. We read in the Acts of Trogir: “The celebration of the Jubilee means entering into a dynamic process of renewal (mission, spiritual life, common life, institutions) and not just the celebration of events.”[1] Conversion entails breaking away from what is old in us and opening to what is new.

 To renew ourselves we have to be convinced that we need to renew ourselves. It is interesting to note that in a meeting of the Dominican Family at Santa Sabina, Rome (September 13, 2014), the representatives of the different branches – nuns, brothers, sisters and lay persons and priests – agreed to make ongoing formation the center of the celebration of the Jubilee 800 in the different branches of the Order.

Permanent formation deepens our faith, helps us read the signs of the times – messengers of the Word of God – and commits us to positive change and development. As we read in the Acts of the General Chapter of Trogir (2013), ongoing formation is not only necessary but today “increasingly necessary” to understand our social and political reality, to continue the never-ending of process of maturation in humanity and faith and to build “a preaching community at the service of the Gospel.”[2]

Ongoing formation is a great need for every religious man or woman. Only a good program of ongoing formation will help priests and religious to be and continue being faithful to their charism or vocation. The theory is clear: “The future and the quality of life of the Province will depend on the formation of its members” on initial and continuing formation.[3]

Ongoing formation, John Paul II tells us is “an intrinsic requirement of religious consecration.” Each religious man or woman ought to be formed every day of their lives. The saintly Pope adds, “None are exempt from the obligation to grow humanly and as religious; by the same token, no one can be over-confident and live in self-sufficient isolation. At no stage of life can people feel so secure and committed that they do not need to give careful attention to ensuring perseverance in faithfulness, just as there is no age at which a person has completely achieved maturity.”[4]

Ongoing formation is a lifelong formation, “a never ending process.” It is a dynamic process towards deeper fidelity, renewal and continuing conversion. Ongoing formation goes after initial formation, which is the most fundamental one.

Ongoing formation is also called permanent or continuing formation, which is an essential part of a priest or a religious vocation for life. We are constantly in statu conversionis, which is the most profound element of our status viatoris, of life as a pilgrimage to the house of the merciful Father.[5] It is a formation for life, which properly begins with perpetual or solemn profession and ends with the last breath of life: “Religious are to be diligent in continuing their spiritual, doctrinal and practical formation throughout their lives.”[6] In the Decree of Vatican II on religious life we read: “Throughout their lives religious should labor earnestly to perfect their spiritual, doctrinal, and professional development.”[7] For his part John Paul II asserts: “every moment can be an ‘acceptable time’ (2 Cor 6:2) for the Holy Spirit to lead (the religious and) the priests to a direct growth in prayer, study and an awareness of his own pastoral responsibilities.”[8]

As we read in our Constitutions (LCO), ongoing formation has to do with the brothers’ renewal and development in keeping with the different stages in their life’s journey, so that they are increasingly prepared to adapt their preaching of the Word of God to people today who are preoccupied with contemporary concerns.” The General Chapter of Trogir says that ongoing formation refers not just to the acquisition of more knowledge, but also “to the continuous process of maturation of the friar and the edification of the Dominican community in all aspects of its existence.” What is needed is “a constant attitude for study and renewal,” fidelity and creativity.  As preachers, Dominicans are obliged to prepare always to be able to preach the Word of God attuned to God’s Word and our times. As itinerant pilgrims, preachers are asked to be witnesses of hope.[9]

The specific elements of permanent formation depend on the age of the religious, the situation of his life and his responsibilities. Ongoing formation is needed by young priests and religious in particular. Pope John Paul II writes: The idea that priestly formation ends on the day of ordination (or profession) is “false, dangerous, and needs to be totally rejected.” Considering the importance of “the first delicate phase of their life and ministry, it is very opportune, and perhaps even absolutely necessary nowadays to create a suitable support structure, with appropriate guides and teachers.”[10] The Ratio Formationis Particularis (RFP) and the Ratio Studiorum Particularis (RSP) of the Province underline the particular relevance of permanent formation for the newly ordained Dominican priests, and recommend a specific program for them.[11]

Permanent formation is needed by priests and religious of middle age, whose life might be endangered by exaggerated activism or a certain routine approach to work, or interior fatigue, disillusionment… Ongoing formation can help them by checking their motivation and strengthening it. It is an opportunity to maintain the always needed “vigilant attitude.”[12]

Ongoing formation is also needed by elderly religious and priests. As much as possible, the elderly ought to be active members of the community and its pastoral projects. I remember an old man in New York walking by the Hilton Hotel (August 1085). His head was covered with a hat where you could easily read: “I am a re-cycled teenager.” The senior members of the Province are as pilgrims in a state of meaningful re-cycling. The members of the community have to be grateful to the old brothers and be in solidarity with them. For their part, the older persons will also profit from permanent formation that will continue helping them confirm their motivation and give them an opportunity to share their experiences and become, when possible, teachers and trainers of younger members. To those among the elderly who are afflicted by pain and sickness, ongoing formation programs adapted to them will help them be active, faithful and strong so that they can join their sufferings to the Suffering Lord. How consoling and refreshing are these words of St. Paul – particularly for those among us who are not that young (chronologically) anymore: “Though this outer man of ours may be falling into decay, the inner man is renewed day by day” (II Cor 5:17-19).

Pope Francis reminds us that ongoing formation, like any good kind of formation, has four essential pillars, namely, spiritual, intellectual, communitarian and apostolic formation. He adds cogently: the four pillars should be integrated from initial to permanent formation. Moreover, these four elements should not be arranged sequentially, but interactively.[13]

In a world of constant change, of “fashions” and fads, we all need to change to be able to keep up with the pace of our world. We need to be constantly re-educated, re-formed, re-programmed, renewed – and how much more in our digital world!

All formation, whether initial or institutional or ongoing, has to do with renewal, change, conversion.  This renewal is, as Vatican II says, “an increase of fidelity to our calling.”[14] In his Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium, Pope Francis underlines certain elements of ongoing formation as growth in Christ and as being continually evangelized: grace (the primacy of grace), doctrinal formation, virtues, and above all, love of neighbor.[15]

This radical fidelity of religious life is for us Dominicans a renewed fidelity to Christ and his Church by the path of Dominic. It is principally interior renewal, renewal of the interior life, including adherence to Christ, common life, prayer, and study – all for preaching and this for the salvation of souls.

As we read in the Province’s Ratio Formationis Particularis (RFP), renewal of life and apostolate covers all dimensions (RFP): doctrinal updates, liturgical celebrations; spiritual, pastoral-theological, psychological, social (“justice and truth”), ecological responsibility, “aging” vows, specially chastity and sexuality.[16]

2. MAIN FORMATOR IN ONGOING FORMATION: EACH ONE OF US

In his Relatio (Rome, April 2016), the Master of the Order Bro. Bruno Cadoré, reminds us of the words of the previous General Chapter (2013): The Chapter of Trogir emphasized that it would be difficult to imagine an initial formation in a Province if it does not give sufficient importance to permanent formation (no. 80).

The task of continuing formation is a personal and communitarian task for all religious men. For the Dominicans, it is an essential role of the whole Dominican Family. In this regard, there are the different responsibilities of authorities: Provincial, Promoters, Vicars and Conventual lectors. There is above all personal responsibility. [17]

The writer strongly believes that the main problem regarding permanent formation is not with the leaders, although also with them of course, but mainly with the subjects, with each brother and sister. In the documents of the Church, we see that motivation is the essential element of any program of ongoing formation for the young, the middle-age and the elderly priests and religious men (and women).

John Paul II writes: “It is the priest himself, the individual priest (or the religious), who is the person primarily responsible in the Church for ongoing formation.” Permanent formation “keeps us up one’s ‘youthfulness’ of spirit.” “Only those who keep ever alive the desire to learn and grow can be said to enjoy this ‘youthfulness’.”[18]

Each religious man is his principal formator. If one does not want to be part of a program of formation or believes that this kind of programs is a waste of time, then he will not participate, or will just attend and be somewhere else! Dominicans have to convince themselves individually over and over again that they need an integral life-long formation. We read in the final draft for a new Ratio Formationis Generalis of the Order (RFG): “As in the case with initial formation, permanent formation is the responsibility in the first place of the brother himself”; “each brother has a personal responsibility to respond to the Gospel call of continuing conversion and renewal, while seeking to meet the changing needs of the people with whom they minister”; “All brothers are called to have, as a priority in their life, emotional and human maturity, fidelity in prayer, fidelity to the vows and to common life, as persevering in the assiduous study that is essential for effective preaching and ministry.”[19]

Dominicans are asked to re-learn their essential need of ongoing formation. If they do not, that need – like when one leaves prayer – dies in them. A point to ponder seriously: if there is no permanent formation, there will be permanent frustration; if there is no permanent formation, there will inevitably be permanent de-formation, for the contrary of formation is de-formation.[20]

A spiritual life identified with a few religious exercises is not authentic. And even if those religious pray, we may see in them “a heightened individualism, a crisis of identity and a cooling of fervor. Their lifestyle is far from being evangelical and robs the mission of evangelization of joy, of enthusiasm, of the joy of community.”[21]

Integral conversion entails conversion to God, to neighbor and to creation. Pope Francis speaks of ecological conversion which implies personal and communitarian conversion leading to the “sublime fraternity with all creation” so evident in St. Francis of Assisi, whose life shows us that “a healthy relationship with creation is one dimension of overall personal conversion.”[22]

Continuing formation is continuing conversion, which is the attitude or state of a pilgrim.[23] This is not easy for it requires change – change of heart and of life. Jesus started preaching that “the Kingdom of God is at hand,” therefore, He added, “repent,” that is say no to sin and yes to love. Change in our comfortable life is difficult for it implies, in the words of W. Barclay, certain disturbance: conversion disturbs us and that is why “so few people do repent – for the last thing most people desire is to be disturbed.”[24]

Conversion entails “discovering” God’s mercy, “rediscovering” our Father, who is infinitely merciful. The Church continues the messianic mission of Christ, his mission of mercy. Jesus’ mercy is a call to conversion and continuing conversion – to merciful love. In the Church’s Sacrament of Reconciliation or Penance, we meet God’s infinite mercy, a mercy which is more powerful than sin, than any sin. God is always ready to forgive, but at times we might not be ready or really want to approach God and say to him “I am sorry.” Only our indifference, our lack of desire to repent will be obstacles to conversion.

The conversion of the followers of Jesus is “a new birth, a growing process of radicalization, which begins with the human conscience, with honesty and integrity, and goes forward to the evangelical values and prophetic options. The highest prophetic option is the cross.”[25]

Are we motivated enough to embark on the road of true renewal? The process of communal and personal conversion requires a good examination of conscience. How are our faith and our hope and our love?  Am I happy? Am I self-centered? What is the place of the others, of the poor and the sick in my life? How is my life style? Am I overly concerned with my personal freedom, my relaxation, my money…? Am I attached to power, to destructive criticism (what Pope Francis calls “the terrorism of gossip”)? Pope Francis says that pastoral workers, teachers, administrators, missionaries should not allow themselves to be robbed of “missionary enthusiasm,” of the “joy of evangelization,” of “community.”[26]

Why I am – are you – not motivated enough to take seriously the journey of change and conversion? Perhaps it is due to lack of fidelity to our roots and to the present. Perhaps, it is due to my lack of humility that stops me from accepting my need of conversion and the need to be born again (cf. Jn 3:3). Perhaps it is a lack of poverty, or better a simple life style: I wonder whether our communities, some of us live as middle class or as high class; facing some huge expenses one is tempted to say – as a friend of mine – “obviously the money is not ours.” Perhaps, we are not motivated because we suffer a lack of hope: “I am like that, I am old, I am…” Perhaps, it is due to our lack of love of neighbor – a love that begins as eros (passion) is transformed in philia and perfected in agape.[27] Perhaps it is partly due to our difficulty or inability to practice “the art of listening.”[28]

Other possible causes separately or jointly with others are: a lack of contemplative prayer. Words to ponder: “Contemplation is not an evasion from history, but the capacity to look intensely to Christ crucified, and afterwards to recognize him in the history of each person and of the entire world.” To separate contemplation and action, Mary and Martha is not good at all: “Faithful to Christian tradition are St. Thomas, with his well-known ‘contemplata aliis tradere’, and St. Ignatius of Loyola: ‘contemplativus simul in actione’.”[29]

 Personally, I consider basically and centrally essential for me two elements in my ongoing conversion or formation: Jesus Christ and prayer. Personal formation begins “with a strong friendship with the only Teacher.”[30] As redeemed by Christ, we are new creatures. “He who is in Christ is a new creature. For him the old things have passed away. A new world has come” (II Cor 5:17-18). Easter is a constant call to newness, to the renewal of baptism, to a new birth – a renewed birth in the Blessed Trinity.

Discovering Christ’ mercy in particular is “a basic experience of a new creation,” and “to meet Jesus is always a point of departure, a window open to the future, a stimulus to hope, a vision of mercy.”[31] Formation, any and all kinds of formation in Christian perspective means “to propose a form” (“formation”), that is, the form of Christ in us and around us. It means radically to form, to be transformed into Jesus Christ.[32] Continuing conversion is “the continuing process of self-surrender to God in Christ.”[33]  Pope Francis says that “Jesus wants evangelizers who proclaim the good news not only with words, but above all by a life transfigured by God’s presence.” He adds: “With Jesus life becomes richer and with him it is easier to find meaning in everything”; our mission is “passion for Jesus and passion for his people.”[34] Jesus is our only vine, and each one of us is a branch. We are fruitful branches that constantly need to be pruned, that is, to be permanently renewed (cf. Jn 15:1-8). Passion for Christ includes passion for the people, and passion for the people entails a special love of preference for the poor and downtrodden.

Continuing formation implies to continue deepening our prayer life, which implies achieving harmony between love of God and love of neighbor, between prayer and the apostolate. Writes John Paul II to the consecrated: “Prayer is the soul of the apostolate and the apostolate animates and inspires prayer.”[35] Pope Francis states that true evangelizers work and pray, and are able to cultivate an interior space that gives meaning to active commitment. He adds: “Prayer, interior space, moments of adoration, prayerful encounter with the word, and sincere conversion all are needed so that our words do not become meaningless.” Prayer, an essential element of the Dominican charism, is always necessary:  without prayer, Pope Francis says, “all our activity risks being fruitless and our message empty.” In silent prayer, John Paul II comments, we may discover the mercy of God who is our Father.[36]

3. AN EASY WAY OF PERMANENT FORMATION

Every Dominican, each one of us will change – that is, be more converted – if he or she really wants: God always helps but He does not force. There are various ways to strengthen our motivation and commitment to continuing formation. The authorities of the Order proposed and carried out through the Jubilee Year the iter of Lectio Divina.[37] Every day one can find in the web page of the Order a window entitled Lectio Divina composed of four classical moments – plus one: Lectio, Studium, Meditatio, Oratio and contemplatio. In his remarkable book La formación permanente, Amedeo Cencini suggests to religious men and women that the easiest and most available method for continuing formation and renewal is active attention to our liturgical calendar: to the daily recitation of the Divine Office, the daily celebration of the Eucharist, the especial celebration of the seasons (particularly Advent and Christmas, Lent and Easter), the commemoration of our saints, and devotion to Mary and to her Rosary. Our daily prayer, personal and communitarian, marks the rhythm of every day and helps each one of us do what we ought to do – our evangelizing mission – in our educational, theological, and pastoral apostolate.[38]

In this liturgical context, we also take pains in celebrating properly the yearly commemoration of our profession day and ordination day. Yearly, we celebrate properly the Day of Consecrated Life held on February 2, the feast of the Presentation of our Lord in the Temple, by renewing our fidelity and our commitment to our call.

There are also what John Paul II calls “privileged moments” in ongoing formation.[39]. These moments may be a retreat, a communal reflection, a workshop on integral formation or on a specific topic like meditation, preaching today, compassion, the cross… It is important to add that the conferences or seminars should not merely be informative, or speculative, but also formative and transformative, practical and ordered to renewal and continuing conversion. In a world permeated by individualism and internet connection, it is necessary to underline the communal dimension of religious life. We recall the words of Pope John Paul II: “Fraternal community is a God-enlightened space to experience the hidden presence of the Risen Lord (cf. Mt 18:20).”[40] In the Christian community, we listen to the Word and share the Bread of Life.

The Eucharist has always been essentially important in the life of a Christian. Jesus says: “I tell you most solemnly, if you do not eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you will not have life in you” (Jn 6:53). The Eucharist is “the fount and apex of the whole Christian life.”[41]

To all priests, the Church strongly recommends the daily celebration of the Eucharist. The Eucharist is, for priests in particular, the most evident element of their identity: the priest is consecrated in order to perpetuate the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, which is “the sacramental memorial of the death and resurrection of Christ,” “the beginning, means, and end of the priestly ministry.” Thus, the daily Eucharist is for the priest “the central moment of his day and of his daily ministry.”[42]

I submit humbly that the most important and relevant event of continuing formation is the daily communitarian celebration of the Eucharist. For religious men and women, the Eucharist has a unique place in their lives. The Dominicans, in particular, distinguish themselves by their devotion to the Eucharist, in particular to the daily Eucharistic celebration. The Dominican saints are all devotees of the Blessed Sacrament. This devotion they learned first from their Father Dominic, who celebrated Mass every day and his tears used to flow “in great abundance” during his celebration Our Constitutions states: “The celebration of the Conventual Mass ought to be the center of the community liturgy: The memorial of the Lord’s death and resurrection is the bond of brotherly love, and the principal source of apostolic vigor.”[43]

It can be truly affirmed that for the Dominican Family the Eucharist is the fountain and main rhythm of their spiritual growth. The Book of Constitutions and Ordinations (LCO) of the Brothers states: “The daily celebration of the Eucharistic sacrifice is recommended for all priests”; “Those who are not priests should participate in the Mass daily.”[44]

The general Chapter of Trogir reminds the brothers that “the Conventual Mass (to which all the brothers are bound, also to the common recitation of the hours) is “the clearest sign of our unity in the Church and in the Order.” Moreover, the 2013 General Chapter states that “preaching should be included in the Conventual Mass and other liturgical celebrations to foster the sharing of our faith” – a sharing that begins at home, that is in the community: the “aliis” in the Dominican motto contemplate aliis tradere” refers “first of all” to the brothers in the respective community.[45]

Prayer, the Eucharist will lead us necessarily to deeper conversion, to a passionate apostolate and to an effective love for the poor and marginalized, and will deepen in us a tender sensitivity towards all, in particular to those wounded on the roads of life. God sends the Dominican preachers today to bring good news to the poor (Lk 4:18), to share with them “a word of hope and of friendship.”[46]

I wish to add, that for me silent, private meditative or contemplative prayer is most relevant and constantly needed. An intimate relationship with God leads necessarily to communal and social transformation. St. Thomas Aquinas writes: “Mental prayer has for its purpose the stirring up of the fire of charity. ‘In my thoughts a fire blazed forth’.”[47] The General Chapter of Trogir says: “Our communities celebrate the liturgy as an expression of living faith and an act of preaching.” The Chapter speaks of the mutual fertilization between personal and common prayer: “Our personal prayer is rooted in common prayer and our common prayer in personal prayer.” The brothers meeting in Trogir exhort all the brothers “to keep in mind the value of individual and prayerful reading of the Word of God.”[48]

CONCLUSION

Ongoing formation is for life. It is part of the journey of pilgrims. It means deepening the commitment to God’s call, to the Dominican vocation. It involves knowledge and practice, which is the best way of knowing: “To know and not to do is not yet to know” (Buddhist Saying).

What matters truly is witnessing. Jesus began “doing and teaching.” When Pharisees and scribes do not believe his words, He tells them to believe in his deeds (cf. Jn 10:25): “Believe because of the works I do” (Jn 14:11). Still, many believed in his words, because He spoke with authority, including the authority of his good deeds, his witnessing of his words.

Integral conversion, yes. Principally, however, internal conversion – conversion of the heart. Mere external conversion continues the kind of conversion of the Pharisees of all times (cf. Mk 7:1-8, 14-15, 21-23), and of our times: perhaps more verbal prayer; perhaps more flowers in our liturgical celebrations; perhaps more “pilgrimages” to Dominican places and more exhibits … All these are nothing without internal change (cf. Jas 1:22-27), or at least a true longing for change of heart.

Evangelization – always new – underlines today “doing,” witnessing, more than just verbal proclamation and dialogue. Certainly, as Blessed Paul VI says, “For the Church, the first means of evangelization is the witness of an authentically Christian life,” which is always on the journey of deeper personal conversion: “There is no new humanity if there are not first of all new persons renewed by Baptism and by lives lived according to the Gospel.”[49] One can always change, be converted, and renewed. Seneca says: “It is never late to live well” (Nunca es tarde para vivir bien).

After making a long retreat in Mexico as preparation for their coming to the East – first to the Philippines and Macau and later to other countries of Asia -, the first missionaries of the Province of Our Lady of the Rosary signed a statement that reads in part: “We must preach, moreover, through our life style so that if our teaching of the doctrine does not move hearts our lives will move all those who see us: this is the best way of teaching.”[50]

 

 

[1] Order of Friar Preachers, General Chapter of Trogir 2013, Acts, 57,1; cf. Ibid. nos. 43 and 108.

[2] Ibid. Acts, 124. Cf. Vatican II, Gaudium et Spes, GS 4.

[3] Our Lady of the Rosary Province, Ratio Formationis Particularis, RFP (Hong Kong: Dominican Curia, 2013), 134. Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, (Vatican City, March 25, 1992), 75.

[4] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Vita Consecrata 69.  In his Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici (Vatican City, December 30, 1998), Pope John Paul II underlines important points on the ongoing formation of the laity – points that are applicable, mutatis mutandis, to priests and religious (cf. CL, no. 8).

[5] Cf. John Pau II, Encyclical Letter Dives in Misericordia (Vatican City, November 30, 1990), 13.

[6] Codex Iuris Cononici, CIC (1983), c. 661.

[7] Vatican II, Decree on the Appropriate Renewal of the Religious Life “Perfectae Caritatis” (1965), 18. Cf. Amedeo Cencini, ¿Creemos de verdad en la formación permanente? (Santander: Sal Terrae, 2013).

[8] John Paul II, Pastores Dabo Vobis, PDV 80, # 1. In the context of permanent formation, spiritual direction is recommended: it contributes “in no small way” to ongoing formation in all the stages of life (Ibid, PDV 80, #3).

[9] Cf. LCO, 251-bis; General Chapter of Trogir, Acts, 125; Ratio Formationis Particularis, RFP 132, 133, 148; Ratio Studiorum Particularis, RSP, 29 and 31.

[10] Ibid. PDV, 76, # 5 and 3.

[11] RFP (2013) # 119 and RSP (Hong Kong Dominican Curia, 2011), #35.

[12] John Paul II, PDV 77, # 1.

[13] Antonio Spadaro, SJ, Ed., “Wake Up the World,” Conversation with Pope Francis of Major Superiors of Religious Men (Rome: November, 2013), La Civiltá Cattolica (2014), 13-17.

[14] Vatican II, Decree on Ecumenism Unitatis Redintegratio (1964), 6.

[15] Cf. Pope Francis, EG 164, 112, and 161.

[16] Cf. RFP 131, 136, 137, 145-146.

[17] Cf. RFP 133, 138, 14-142, 7 and 3; RSP 33, 34.

[18] John Paul II, PDV 79, # 1 and 11.

[19] Dominican Curia, Ratio Formationis Generalis of the Order of Friar Preachers (Rome: Santa Sabina, 2015), nos. 179 and 18. 

[20] Amedeo Cencini, La Formación Permanente, 4th Ed. (Madrid: San Pablo, 2002), 23-24. .

[21] Pope Francis, EG, nos. 80, 83, 92.

[22] Pope Francis, LS’, 317-321, 218.

[23] Cf. John Paul II, Dives in Misericordia, DM (Vatican City, November 30, 1980), 13.

[24] William Barclay, The Daily Study Bible, The Gospel of Mark: In Mk, 6:12-13 (Edinburgh: The Saint Andrew Press, 1875, Reprinted in the Philippines by Marian center, Inc., 1985), 144-146.

[25] Patxi Loidi, “Conciencia moral,” Cuadernos ‘Fe y Justicia’ (Bilbao: Ediciones Ega, 1987), 14-15. Cf. CCC 1935.

[26] Pope Francis, EG 78-83, 92.

[27] Fabio Ciardi, OMI, “Balconear o caminar,” Vida Religiosa, Vol. 116 (Marzo 2014), 29-31.

[28] Pope Francis, EG, 171.

[29] Fabio Ciardi, OMI, “Balconear o caminar,” 29-31.

[30] Pope Francis, Address to Formators of Consecrated Men and Women (Vatican City: April 11, 2015).

[31] Nuria Calduch-Benages, “Entrañas de misericordia,” L’Osservatore Romano, Year XLVIII, No. 4 (January 29, 2016), 6.

[32] Cf. Amedeo Cencini, Misioneros, ¿Sí o No? (Madrid: Paulinas 2009), 67; Id. La formación permanente, 26-29.

[33] Mark O’Keefe, OSB, Becoming Good, Becoming Holy. On the Relationship of Christian Ethics and Spirituality (Makati City, Metro Manila: St Pauls, 1997), 27.

[34] Pope Francis, EG, 259, 266, 268.

[35] John Paul II, Vita Consecrata, 67.

[36] Pope Francis, EG 259, 262; cf. John Paul II, Dives in Misericordia, 13.

[37] Cf. Bro, Bruno Cadoré, Master of the Order, Relatio (2016), no. 80.

[38] Cf. Amedeo Cencini, La formación permanente, 179-188. The whole third part of the book is dedicated to the rhythm of time through the liturgical year (Ibid 189-283).

[39] John Paul II, PDV, 80.

[40] John Paul II, VC, 42.

[41] Vatican II, Lumen Gentium, LG, 11.

[42] Congregation for the Clergy, Directory on the Ministry and Life of Priests (Vatican City, January 31, 1994), nos. 48-50. Cf. CIC, 904.

[43] Order of Preachers, LCO, 59, # I. Cf. Early Dominicans Selected Writings, 66 and 73.

[44] Order of Preachers, LCO 59, # III and IV. Cf. José Aldazabal, “La Eucaristía diaria en la vida de los religiosos,” Cuadernos Phase, 6 (Barcelona: Centro de Pastoral Litúrgica, 1988),  47-52.

[45] Order of Friar Preachers, ACGTr, 63-65.Cf. Order of Preachers, LCO 63 and 59 # II and III.

[46] Order of Friar Preachers, ACG 2013 Trogir, 48.

[47] St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, II-II, 189, 7 ad 1.

[48] Order of Friar Preachers, ACG 2013 Trogir, 63 and 65. Cf. Order of Preachers, Liber Constitutionum et Ordinationum, LCO, 63.

[49] Paul VI, Evangelii Nuntiandi, 1975, 41 and 18.

[50] Province of Our Lady of the Rosary, Ordenaciones Primordiales, in Actas del Capítulo Provincial de Valladolid (1997), pp. 173-177.